Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has small beneficial effects for reducing pain, disability, and distress in adults age 18 and older with chronic non-headache, non-cancer pain, according to a meta-analysis of 75 studies for Cochrane Systematic Review. The quality of evidence for CBT was moderate. However, evidence for CBT impact on disability was low quality. The evidence-base for non-psychological treatment with active controls, such as behavior therapy (exercise programs) or acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) (education about managing pain), was moderate to very low quality, indicating uncertainty about the benefits of behavior therapy and . . .
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