Opioid misuse rates are higher in the United States among people who are unemployed and among those working full time who have job stress. People who are unemployed are 40% more likely to misuse opioids than people working full-time (35 to 40 hours per week). Opioid misuse rates are 35% higher among people who are employed full-time but have job stress due to a low effort-to-reward ratio. The effort-to-reward ratio contrasts the employee's perception of the physical and mental effort needed to do a job with the employee’s perception of rewards available . . .
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